CMR Convention

CONVENTION ON THE CONTRACT FOR INTERNATIONAL CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY ROAD  (CMR)
PREAMBLE, THE CONTRACTING PARTIES

Having recognized the desirability of standardizing the conditions  governing the  contract for the international carriage of goods  by  road, particularly with respect to the documents used for  such  carriage and to the carrier's liability,

HAVE AGREED AS FOLLOWS:

CHAPTER 1
SCOPE OF APPLICATION
ARTICLE 1-

1. This Convention will apply to all contracts regarding the carriage of  goods by road in vehicles for payment when the place of taking over  the goods and the place designated for delivery are located in two  different countries as specified in the contract regardless of the  nationalities or place of residences of the parties.
2. For the purpose of this Convention “vehicle” mans motor vehicles, articulated vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers as defined in Clause 4 of 19 September 1949 dated Convention on Road Traffic.
3. This Convention shall also apply where the carriage is made by States or by governmental institutions or organizations. 
4. This Convention shall not apply:
a) to the carriage conducted under international postal conventions,
b) to funeral consignments,
c)to household removal
5. The Contracting Parties agree not to amend any of the provisions of this convention by special agreements between two or more of them. However, the cases to make the Convention inapplicable for their frontier traffic and to authorize the use of delivery notes representing the title of the goods entirely confined to their territory for transport operations. 

ARTICLE 2

1. Where the vehicle containing the goods is carried over part of its journey by sea, rail, inland waterways or air without unloading the goods from the vehicle except where the conditions of clause 14 shall apply, this Convention shall apply to entire carriage.  However, where the loss or damage or delays experienced at the delivery pioint is evidenced to be occurred with other means of transport but not due to to any act or omission of the carrier by road, then the liability of the carrier by road shall not be determined by this Convention but according to law regulating the provisions of carriage with other means of carriage and according to the provisions of a contract alone executed by the sender by the carrier of other means of transport, if any. Where such provisions are unavailable the liability of carrier by road will be determined by the provisions of this Convention.